API 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries

Details :

API RP 571-2020 is the latest edition that describes damage mechanisms affecting equipment in the refining and petrochemical industries. A key first step in managing equipment safety and reliability is the identification and understanding of the various damage mechanisms. Proper identification of damage mechanisms is also required when implementing the API Inspection Codes (API 510, API 570, API 653) and in carrying out risk based inspection (RBI) per API 580 and API 581. When performing a fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment using API 579, the damage mechanisms need to be understood and need to be considered when evaluating the remaining life.


This 5-day corrosion short course aims to provide the participants with a thorough understanding of the various damage mechanisms contained in the latest edition of API RP 571-2020 that can affect process equipment, the type and extent of damage that can be expected, and how this knowledge can be applied to the selection of effective inspection methods to detect size and characterise damage. The 66 damage mechanisms to be discussed in this corrosion short course are common to a variety of industries including refining and petrochemical, pulp and paper, and fossil utility

This course will specifically benefit Engineers, Supervisors, and Managers from the following disciplines : Mechanical Engineering, Inspection, Maintenance& Operations, Technical & Engineering, QAQC, and technical personnel with 2-3 years of experience in the management and planning of inspection and
maintenance activities of piping system at upstream oil & gas facilities, refineries, process plants and
petrochemical facilities.

1. Introduction to Corrosion

    1.1 Corrosion: Definition and Examples

    1.2 Basic Concepts in Electrochemistry

    1.3 Why Do Metals Corrode

    1.4 Kinetics: the Rate of Corrosion

    1.5 How Do Metals Corrode: Different Forms of Corrosion

    1.6 General Methods for Corrosion Control



2. Common Alloys Used in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries

3. Overview of API RP 571-2011


4. General Damage Mechanisms – All Industries Including Refining and
    Petrochemical, Pulp and Paper, and Fossil Utility 


    4.1 General

    4.2 Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms

           4.2.1 Graphitization

           4.2.2 Softening (Spheroidization)

           4.2.3 Temper Embrittlement

           4.2.4 Strain Aging

           4.2.5 885oF Embrittlement

           4.2.6 Sigma Phase Embrittlement

           4.2.7 Brittle Fracture

           4.2.8 Creep / Stress Rupture

           4.2.9 Thermal Fatigue

           4.2.10 Short Term Overheating – Stress Rupture

           4.2.11 Steam Blanketing

           4.2.12 Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW) Cracking

           4.2.13 Thermal Shock

           4.2.14 Erosion / Erosion-Corrosion

           4.2.15 Cavitation

           4.2.16 Mechanical Fatigue

           4.2.17 Vibration-Induced Fatigue

           4.2.18 Refractory Degradation

           4.2.19 Reheat Cracking

           4.2.20 Gaseous Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion


    4.3 Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness


           4.3.1 Galvanic Corrosion

           4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion

           4.3.3 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

           4.3.4 Cooling Water Corrosion

           4.3.5 Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion

           4.3.6 CO2 Corrosion

           4.3.7 Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion

           4.3.8 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)

           4.3.9 Soil Corrosion

           4.3.10 Caustic Corrosion

           4.3.11 Dealloying

           4.3.12 Graphitic Corrosion


    4.4 High Temperature Corrosion [400oF (204oC)]

           4.4.1 Oxidation

           4.4.2 Sulfidation

           4.4.3 Carburization

           4.4.4 Decarburization

           4.4.5 Metal Dusting

           4.4.6 Fuel Ash Corrosion

           4.4.7 Nitriding


    4.5 Environment – Assisted Cracking

          4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (CI–SCC)

          4.5.2 Corrosion Fatigue

          4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)

          4.5.4 Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking

          4.5.5 Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)

          4.5.6 Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE)

          4.5.7 Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

          4.5.8 Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking


 5. Refining Industry Damage Mechanisms

    5.1 General

           5.1.1 Uniform or Localized Loss in Thickness Phenomena

             Amine Corrosion

             Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion (Alkaline Sour Water)

             Ammonium Chloride Corrosion

             Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Corrosion

             High Temperature H2/H2S Corrosion

             Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion

             Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC)

             Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion

             Phosphoric Acid Corrosion

             Sulfuric Acid Corrosion

             Aqueous Organic Acid Corrosion


            5.1.2 Environment–Assisted Cracking

             Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC)

             Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking

             Wet H2S Damage (Blistering / HIC / SOHIC / SCC)

             Hydrogen Stress Cracking – HF

             Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC)


            5.1.3 Other Mechanisms

             High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)

             Titanium Hydriding


      5.2 Process Unit PFD’s

             5.2.1 Crude Unit / Vacuum

             5.2.2 Delayed Coker

             5.2.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking

             5.2.4 FCC Light Ends Recovery

             5.2.5 Catalytic Reforming – CCR

             5.2.6 Catalytic Reforming – Fixed Bed

             5.2.7 Hydroprocessing Units – Hydrotreating, Hydrocracking

             5.2.8 Sulfuric Acid Alkylation

             5.2.9 HF Alkylation

             5.2.10 Amine Treating

             5.2.11 Sulfur Recovery

             5.2.12 Sour Water Stripper

             5.2.13 Isomerization

             5.2.14 Hydrogen Reforming

Seminar style sections with blended lectures and real life application

daily 09:00 – 14:00